What is the Scope of Environmental Studies


Environmental Studies is the study of human interactions with the environment and their impact on the planet and its inhabitants. It is an interdisciplinary field of study which draws from the natural sciences, social sciences, humanities, engineering and geo-sciences. It is a complex field of study which has wide application across government, industry and research institutes.

This introduction will provide an overview of the scope of environmental studies.

Definition of Environmental Studies

Environmental studies are a multidisciplinary field that explores the interaction and relationship between humans and the environment. It encompasses a wide range of topics, from natural sciences to ecology, from urban planning to environmental protection and from environmental economics to environmental management. Environmental studies also draw upon other disciplines such as geography, sociology, anthropology, public health, economics, biology and local history.

Environmental studies view the environment not simply as an abstract concept but as a tangible thing which can be studied in order to understand its effects on human activity. The goal is to investigate how humans interact with our environment and what impact this interaction has on our planet’s future. Studies focus on both understanding current problems like water pollution or global warming as well as anticipating possible solutions through policy decisions or technological advances.

By examining the ways in which humans interact with their surroundings on land, in the air and in water they aim to help minimize damage caused by industrialization while encouraging conservation of energy and resources. Environmental studies serve a usefulness within many good practices thus being considered applicable universally regardless of economic standing or geographical regions.

Overview of Environmental Studies

Environmental studies is an interdisciplinary academic field which systematically studies human interaction with the environment in all its forms. This field encompasses a broad range of topics from the natural environment, to the built environment, to the social environment. Through research, education and outreach activities, Environmental Studies seeks to understand important environmental issues such as climate change, natural resource conservation and management, pollution control and energy efficiency.

By studying environmental science topics from diverse perspectives including chemistry, biology, ecology, geology and physics; students gain insight into how organisms interact with their physical surroundings and learn about the social implications of human activity as it affects our air quality, water resources and other natural resources. Furthermore by exploring economics and policy-making through specific courses on sustainable development or environmental law students can understand how different stakeholders can inform policies that meet current needs without compromising future generations’ access to resources.

In short environmental studies involve the comprehension of complex systems that span sciences and social sciences alike; it strives to build a bridge between theoretical knowledge (e.g., understanding climate change) with tangible needs (e.g., developing products that are economically feasible while being environmentally responsible).

Areas of Focus

Environmental studies is a broad field, covering a wide range of topics from climate change to natural resource management. It is a multidisciplinary field that combines elements from various other fields such as chemistry, biology, physics, geography, sociology, and economics.

In this article, we will explore the various areas of focus for environmental studies:

Natural Resources

When considering the term ‘natural resources’, it is helpful to understand what constitutes a resource. Simply put, a resource can be any type of material that can be used in some way. Resources may include both renewable and non-renewable materials.

  • Renewable materials may include things like water and solar energy,
  • while non-renewable sources may include metals or fossils fuels.

Within the context of natural resources, sustainable consumption is one area of focus for organizations attempting to conserve nature’s bounty. This involves using resources efficiently and in ways that do not disturb the ecosystem balance or cause harm to animal life. It can also refer to choosing sustainable materials for products, such as bamboo for textiles or wood for furniture that are harvested in an ecologically responsible manner.

Another important area of focus when it comes to natural resources is environmental protection. This means actions taken to ensure nature is preserved while keeping it safe from pollution, construction projects, deforestation and other human-made threats. Environmental protection initiatives often also involve protecting sensitive biological features such as wetlands, rivers and forests; preserving cultural heritage based on local traditions; as well as conserving biodiversity by limiting hunting or development in fragile ecosystems like coral reefs or forests areas with endangered species. Finally, the ability to respond to climate change should also be taken into consideration when discussing sustainable management of natural resources.

Ecology and Biodiversity

Ecology and biodiversity is one of the core areas of environmental studies, as it deals with the interactions between organisms and their environment, such as the roles of individual organisms in food webs and the flow of energy through ecosystems. This field also considers the development and structure of natural communities, including examining the range of different species that live in a habitat and how they interact with each other.

This branch of environmental science also covers global issues such as climate change, pollution, resource management, conservation, and land-use planning. Students will study data from satellite imagery to map wildlife populations; analyze atmospheric samples for pollution levels; document evidence for climate change; learn about threatened species protection; evaluate existing ecosystems for conservation goals; use geographic information systems (GIS) to assess local sustainability initiatives; implement biodiversity offsets measures; manage parks and protected areas; recommend ways to restore disturbed landscapes or rehabilitate depleted ecosystems. In addition, research is used to develop new methods of sustainable resource management or identify modifications that must be made to current practices in order to reduce negative environmental impacts.

Pollution and Waste Management

Pollution and Waste Management is an important area of focus in Environmental Studies. Pollution is a broad concept which covers the contamination of air, water, soil and other natural resources with a variety of chemicals and particles, resulting in adverse impacts on human health and environmental quality. Waste management involves practices such as waste prevention, reuse and recycling, as well as proper disposal of hazardous waste materials. It also encompasses policy initiatives aimed at reducing waste production around the world.

In Pollution and Waste Management, students can learn about the latest technologies for controlling pollutants and managing wastes. Additionally, courses may also cover topics like:

  • Air pollution control technology
  • Soil pollution
  • Water contamination
  • Industrial wastewater treatment
  • Hazardous waste management
  • Recycling processes
  • Solid waste collection systems
  • Hazardous-waste landfills
  • Radioactive-waste storage facilities
  • Global environmental policies related to air pollution reduction and improved resource efficiency
  • Industrial ecology principles such as green chemistry
  • Urban sustainability dynamics related to the environment-energy nexus in cities worldwide.

Climate Change

Climate change is one of the most pressing issues facing the world today. Rising sea levels and extreme weather events threaten communities, agriculture, and quality of life around the globe. Without concerted action on climate change, global temperatures could rise dramatically in the coming years and put millions of people at risk.

The primary cause of climate change is an increase in greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2). These gases are generated by burning fossil fuels like oil, gas, diesel, coal and other carbon-emitting sources. As these gases accumulate in the atmosphere they create a blanket-like effect that traps heat energy from the sun and warms our planet. In addition to contributing to global warming, these gases also increase acidity levels in our oceans which can harm marine species.

To reduce emissions that are causing climate change, individuals must make lifestyle changes such as reducing consumption of animal products and reducing car travel. Governments around the world must also take strong action to encourage green energy sources like wind and solar power rather than traditional coal mining and burning. Measures must also be taken to protect forests from deforestation as trees are essential for absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Finally, emissions trading systems can help encourage reduced emissions from businesses with financial incentives.

Job Opportunities

Environmental studies offer many different opportunities for graduates and students. Environmental studies students can find employment in many industries, such as green energy, conservation, and sustainability. With the growing demand for environmentally conscious businesses and organizations, and the increasing need to protect and preserve our natural resources, job prospects for those with a background in environmental studies are plentiful.

Environmental Scientist

Environmental scientists play an important role in analyzing and protecting the land, air, and water we use. They seek to identify, investigate, and prevent environmental problems by making observations, collecting samples, and consulting with professionals such as climate biologists or environmental engineers. Most environmental science professionals require advanced degrees; for many positions a Bachelor’s degree is necessary for entry-level employment.

The primary responsibilities of an environmental scientist include:

  • Studying the environment in order to determine the sources of pollutants and their potential effects on human health or on local ecosystems.
  • Devising methods of measuring pollutants in water, air, soil, etc.
  • Collecting data from surveys or experiments.
  • Interpreting data using statistical tools or computer programs.
  • Developing plans to reduce or eliminate sources of pollution.
  • Implementing programs or policies that manage pollution levels.
  • Writing reports that present research findings and make recommendations for various types of management decisions.
  • Educating communities regarding issues related to the environment.

Environmental scientists also work closely with governments and industry to regulate the use of resources while minimizing negative impacts on the environment.

Environmental Engineer

Environmental engineers are responsible for creating methods and solutions for minimizing the negative impact of human activities on the environment. They work in a variety of fields, including water management, air quality, pollution control and recycling, resource management, and environmental health and safety.

Typically, environmental engineers possess a bachelor’s degree in environmental engineering and often have advanced degrees in engineering or science. They must keep up with current regulations related to their field and stay abreast of new technologies as they apply to their profession.

Environmental engineers may specialize in areas like air quality engineering, energy conservation engineering, hazardous waste engineering, water resource engineering and ecological restoration engineering. Responsibilities may include:

  • Designing facilities that will prevent or manage water pollution;
  • Developing strategies to manage solid or hazardous wastes;
  • Enhancing air quality standards;
  • Ensuring compliance with federal regulations related to safety;
  • Providing education on sustainable practices to production personnel;
  • Meaningfully engaging with local governments on sustainability initiatives;
  • Discussing potential impacts of proposed projects with community groups;
  • Documenting data associated with projects through field measurements such as pH readings or particulate samples;
  • Preparing technical reports setting forth findings on potential impact assessments;
  • Ensuring compliance with applicable laws and regulations pertaining to the environment.

Environmental Policy Analyst

Environmental policy analysts specialize in the development of laws, regulations and policies to address environmental issues. They are responsible for analyzing existing and proposed environmental regulations, making recommendations for new or amended regulations, researching legal options to enforce environmental regulations and keeping up-to-date on the latest changes in local, state and federal environmental standards.

Environmental policy analysts have the ability to apply their knowledge of science and environment to all aspects of policy implementation. They are specialized in addressing issues related to air and water quality, resource management, noise pollution, hazardous waste disposal or endangered species protection. Their most important responsibility is to ensure that all organizations comply with applicable laws and regulations.

Policy analysts typically work in government offices or organizations operating within the public sector. Because policy formulation is ever-changing they often have a great deal of flexibility within their job responsibilities. In addition to researching data and formulating policies, policy analysts must also be able to communicate effectively with decision makers outside their field of expertise. This includes discussing goals from both scientific and political perspectives in order for effective action plans to be developed that consider both viewpoints.

Career Paths

Environmental studies is a field with a very wide range of potential career paths, with opportunities in both the private and public sectors. Depending on your interests and skills, you could be working in fields like sustainability consulting, climate change, renewable energy, or environmental compliance.

Let’s explore some of the more popular career paths in this field:

Environmental Education

Environmental education (EE) is a rapidly growing profession that combines the knowledge and skills of several disciplines. It focuses on increasing public awareness and appreciation of ecosystems, the environment, and humanity’s impact on them. EE practitioners work in a variety of settings, from academia to government agencies to non-profit organizations.

EE practitioners utilize their unique combination of education and training to teach citizens of all ages about ways in which they can minimize their environmental impact, make informed decisions about environmental issues, and promote stewardship for our planet. By developing resources for environmental education outreach programs and activities, EE professionals help foster better decision making by the public. In addition to educating citizens directly or through workshops, EE professionals may also lead groups in nature walks or hikes, speak at conferences or community events, organize service projects that benefit the environment or create educational programming either through media platforms or through classroom instruction.

Not only do EE professionals need strong communication skills; they must also be knowledgeable about:

  • current scientific approaches to natural history studies as well as governmental regulations concerning conservation policy at the state and federal level.
  • policies regarding energy efficiency within their field as well as developments related to sustainable living practices in order to teach others effectively about these topics.

The combination of educational information with proven investigative techniques makes this an ideal role for anyone with a passion for protecting our environment.

Environmental Law

For those looking to use their expertise in environmental studies to create tangible change, a career in environmental law may be the right choice. Environmental law encompasses an array of regulations that allow individuals and organizations to advocate for, protect and manage the environment. These laws determine how countries, states and governments interact with their natural resources.

Typical legal roles within environmental law involve advising clients on best practices as it relates to the environment and filing associated paperwork. Depending on the role and sector, professionals may work in fields such as conservation biology or energy development; or for companies, nonprofit organizations or even private legal firms.

Environmental lawyers typically possess a range of skillsets specific to science and communications and knowledge about the legal system; this includes policy analysis, economic analysis, regulatory negotiation and litigation techniques. In addition lawyers would have awareness of international environmental treaties and sustainability practices.

Environmental lawyers are required by most states to have a law degree from an accredited American Bar Association college program followed by passing a state bar examination; some firms may also hire paralegals who have degrees specifically in this field or certification in law schools focusing on environmental practice.

Environmental Consulting

Environmental consulting is a great career choice for those wanting to combine their passion for the environment with business knowledge and technical skills. Environmental consulting is a professional practice that provides expert advice to governments, industry, or others on how to best manage their environment and live in harmony with their surroundings. Environmental consultants bridge the gaps between businesses and government regulations, helping clients to understand the applicable laws while navigating the ever changing world of environmental protection.

Environmental consulting may include research projects exploring the compatibility of different technologies, providing input on regulations and standards, evaluating potential exposure or risk for pollution sources, assisting in permitting processes and compliance actions, measuring emission inventories, health assessments of contaminated sites or water systems and planning for hazardous waste management. The work may range from local residential projects to large-scale industrial initiatives from a single site investigation to more global efforts.

Environmental consultants usually specialize in one of several disciplines including:

  • Air quality regulation & management
  • Sediment & erosion control
  • Geosciences
  • Wastewater disposal
  • Solid & hazardous waste management
  • Water resources management
  • Ecological risk assessment
  • Wetland delineations & restoration

Typical qualifications include an environmental degree plus advanced training or experience related to particular types of projects. The mandated certifications generally require rigorous examination making this field quite competitive but also rewarding financially and professionally.


Finally, it is essential to note that a degree in Environmental Studies can help open many doors to potential career paths that can have a direct and positive effect on the environment as well as our society. Whether you’re interested in large-scale renewable energy solutions or natural resource conservation, there are a variety of exciting opportunities for individuals with an appropriate education.

With the right combination of enthusiasm, hard work and commitment, graduates of this subject can have fulfilling and successful careers.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1: What fields of study are included in Environmental Studies?

A1: Environmental Studies covers a wide range of topics, including ecology, conservation biology, economics, policy, law, human behavior, climate change, and more.

Q2: What kind of jobs can I have with a degree in Environmental Studies?

A2: With a degree in Environmental Studies, you can pursue a variety of careers, such as environmental law, environmental policy, conservation biology, sustainability, and more.

Q3: What kind of research do Environmental Studies students do?

A3: Environmental Studies students research a variety of topics, including environmental law and policy, environmental science, human behavior, and sustainability.